Wednesday, 21 October 2020

VLOG#3 - Using Rubrics to improve marking and feedback - Ian Stonnell

Let's be honest, marking has always been a drag for teachers. Going through books, deciphering the handwriting, giving meaningful comments... it could all take an age. The impact of this incredible effort has also always been a debatable one. I know, from personal experience as an RE teacher, that once I've completed a piece of marking the impact it has on many students is negligible, especially considering the amount of time between them doing the work and then me getting it back to them.

Is there a better way? 

Well yes. Marking using Google Classroom.

In GCSE RE we have put a great deal of effort into the use of  assignments on Google Classroom - we have used them both in the classroom and remotely. Now, with the introduction of the rubric tool, a revolution is taking place. It is now possible to mark work and give feedback so quickly and efficiently that our marking has becoming a powerful tool with meaningful impact. Have a watch of this video to see how we have designed and used a rubric to improve our marking and feedback.

What do you think of that? Is it something that could work in your context? Consider that using this system means marking can be done anywhere, anytime without the need to go near (or carry) a pile of exercise books, and that the feedback is quick, legible and easy to act upon. There's got to be a way you can use it!

Below is another video with a brief guide on how to make a rubric.

Obviously traditional marking will have it's place (for now). We still want students to complete written work and we will still need to mark this work - and in some subjects requirements are different. Nevertheless, the direction of travel, particularly in light of Covid-19, is that digital learning is the future, and that includes digital examinations. Get ahead of the game and start to experiment with rubrics.

Ian Stonnell @DenbighCPD

Tuesday, 22 September 2020

Blended Learning: How to get the most out of technology for learning at Denbigh - Ian Stonnell

With the likelihood that further Covid-19 restrictions will return in the autumn and winter months the probability that we will have to resort to some form of distance learning is also high (as I write already three year groups have been sent home to isolate). As such we should be keenly aware of developing our ability to provide the best quality teaching and learning for our students through distance learning. We can start this by developing our current technology for learning practices so that, when distant learning happens we will be ready for a seamless transition. 

In this blog we will look at a few basic strategies that, if we develop and make them a part of our culture of practice in now, we can make the change to distance learning seemless for our students - it is a blended learning approach

If you wish to see these techniques demonstrated and ask further questions DEnbigh staff can sign up for the additional CPD session on Wednesday 30th September, led by myself and Emma Darcy; sign up here.

1. Using Google Classroom to share.

One of the simplest things to do with your lesson resources is to share them. Upload your lesson presentations, worksheets, video links and more just with a few clicks. By sharing resources we make sure that all students have access to them whether they are in school or out. You can also provide detailed instructions for what you want students to do with the resources when they are shared. 

2. Google Classroom to assess - Summative and Formative

Assessment is now so easy using google classroom. For formal assessments and exam questions it is possible to set assignments which students can complete in school using Chromebooks or at home. Marking these assessments is easy - you can edit students' work to add literacy suggestions automatically, you can create comment banks to give students specific feedback, and for exam questions you can even create generic rubrics that can act as assessment criteria (which you can mark along to). This is time saving and can be done at a great distance or even in the classroom for live marking. If you want to assess speaking you can also have student upload recordings of themselves that you can give feedback too.

AFL can also be built into live lessons using google forms. You can easily set a google form that can contain short, low-stakes, multiple choice knowledge questions that can be marked automatically and give you instant feedback that can be shared with the class. This can also be done remotely.

It is important to note that in both of these examples Google Classroom will automatically create a mark sheet for you that can track student progress. In the context of distance learning this is useful information that can assess how much a student is engaging with work and also how well they are doing -providing evidence for you if you need to call home for concerns or praise!

3. Using Chromebooks for literacy.

Sharing resources is easy. Why not share reading resources? In a live lesson students reading along to an extract that a teacher is reading in front of them is a powerful way to improve the vocabulary of students. Engaging in reading, with a Chromebook at their fingertips, also provides them with the means to build their understanding using online dictionaries or further signposted resources that can illustrate the concepts they are reading about. 

In distance learning scenarios you can still share reading as an activity. Then provide them with a google form quiz to assess understanding (multiple choices questions are good here) and then a longer written assignment that assesses comprehension and other desired skills.

4. Using Chromebooks to open the world.

Why not send students on an trip during distance learning? You can! Here is a 360 degree tour of the Holy Sites of Jerusalem and another visit to North Pole. Just two among hundreds available!

The internet is a gateway to the world. So long as we provide them direction, students can see the world in a way that builds their knowledge in your subject. Using resources such as Google Expeditions and Google Poly we can open the world up to our students. For the latest list of expeditions available on Google Expeditions have a look here. I need not remind you that YouTube also has a wealth of educational videos and guided tours of world sites that are also worth a search - here is a 360 degree tour of St Paul's Cathedral in London that could be used in history and RE.

5. Using Screencastify to explain and model.

Screencastify is a recording tool which is an extension added to google chrome. The free version (which we have at Denbigh) enables you to record 5 minute videos of your computer screen (such as presentation slides) with you talking over. My covid video was produced using screencastify and, after a few practice runs, I found it an easy to use. 

The impact that screencastify can have for distance learning is powerful. 

During lockdown, students reported that one of the biggest things they missed was teachers explaining concepts to them. Reading from presentations can be effective, but that guided pieces of teacher narrative can make the difference. Using screencastify we can record short and concise explanations of the more difficult concepts we deliver in our subjects. We can also model how to tackle exam questions or problems using meta-cognitive speech - a proven way to support student progress that is hard to replicate using the written word.

Ian Stonnell @DenbighCPD

Wednesday, 1 July 2020

Applying cognitive load theory to Computer Science - Simon James

The focus for my research is around Cognitive Load Theory and how using Chromebooks and Google Applications can promote longer term memory and recall by considering the cognitive load on learners. 

Literature Review - Cognitive Load Theory
Cognitive Load Theory is based upon an understanding of how information is held in working memory and then processed into the long term memory. There are three types known as intrinsic load, which concerns the difficulty of the task; extraneous load, which is unnecessary thinking required by students, and germane load, which is load required by the teaching task to support the learning.

Why Bar-Model Works #2: Reducing Cognitive Load – Reading for Learning

Research into cognitive load suggests a number of different strategies particularly with the use of teacher presentations. Tharby (2019) suggests that “labels are integrated into diagrams and ensure that information is presented in close physical proximity to related information”. He further mentions the importance of “images to support complex and conceptual idea”, which can help reduce germane load. Tharby (2019) explores a range of different strategies to support effective classroom pedagogy:
  • Ensure that labels are integrated into diagrams and ensure that the information is presented in close physical proximity to related information.
  • Avoid reading out text that is already on the slide
  • Remove distractions or superfluous images
  • Use images to support complex and conceptual ideas
  • If you intend to explain an image, it is best not to include written text at the same time.
  • Never expect students to read something from the board while you are talking
  • Reveal processes stage by stage on the same slide.

Diagrams — OliCav
Oliver Caviglioli is a leading figure in applying cognitive load theory to diagrams and presentations (a link to a webinar is included below).

In our Computer Science department we have identified that students struggle with the cognitive load placed upon them due to the quantity of new knowledge that they need to process to be successful at the new GCSE specification. This load often causes students to become stressed, demotivated or both. A solution to this that will form part of my practitioner study is to introduce some of the knowledge required in the GCSE specification at an earlier level to help scaffold the knowledge, reducing load at a later stage. In lessons we should also be able to apply some of the techniques advised by Andy Tharby to support learning. Finally through the use of Chromebooks and the G-suite of educational tools such as Google Classroom we should be able to further reduce the cognitive load on students by building knowledge through routine low stakes assessment and supporting homework tasks.

I aim to use my year 8 computer science class (82/Cs) they are a group of mostly high achieving pupils who have already had a number of difficult topics at GCSE computer science introduced in a way which reduces unnecessary difficulties and promotes long-term knowledge retention. Their long-term memory will be tested at regular intervals to check if cognitive load strategies help with completing these tasks.

The intervention will involve using pre-prepared examples, with models, flowcharts and other relevant images to support text (following the guidance of Andy Tharby). There will also be permanent access to task instructions and success criteria available on Google Classroom for the pupils to access. The resources will cover a whole half-term of learning which will deliver new content pupils haven’t been exposed to before on algorithms. The learning will also be supported by Google Form assessments that will be completed using Chromebooks.

Using the Cognitive Load and technology strategies suggested I am hoping to see an improvement in knowledge retention as the reduced cognitive load will ensure greater transfer of knowledge into the long term memory. This will be measured through the end of year exams and compared to other groups in year 8 who are not receiving the intervention.

The topic for the term was ‘algorithms’ so I wanted to focus on reducing the intrinsic load of the knowledge, by including useful labels and diagrams to support the learning. This strategy along with using the formatting of bold and underline to help reinforce key pieces of information with pupils. After modelling the knowledge the students would complete a range of interactive tasks including defining, creating and reading a variety of flowcharts applying the knowledge learnt from my explanations.

After completing these activities, I explained to the pupils that their homework and classwork would be focussed around specific knowledge and skills this based upon the lesson content (rather than completing a project log for homework where they reflect on their learning journey). I explained that we would be focussing on exploring algorithms in great depth and how we would use Google Forms for assessment with the aim of promoting mastery. 

The pupils managed to show good improvement from the initial control group, which showed that they managed to grasp difficult topics which typically are taught in Year 9. They made strong progress during the 6 week half-term. They were taught an introduction to computational thinking; exploring the 4 main techniques of computational thinking (as seen above). The presentation and use of supporting images pictured above helped articulate each of the key words and then the exploration activities the pupils undertook in the worksheet allowed them to explore and build a strong cognitive understanding of the topic. Other groups learning about algorithms in the same term struggled possibly due to less attention on key subject terminology and more focus on practical task based tasked which overloaded them cognitively. 

The pupils typically are asked to complete a project log each week for homework, and after completing a questionnaire the results showed that 84% said they enjoyed completing the Google Forms assessments on their chromebooks and 63% said it helped them to remember the learning which happened in the lesson. In the following term I interviewed a small group of pupils to ask if they enjoyed the topic and the way the knowledge was presented this term. One pupil said “learning the algorithm theory then applying it to flowgorithm was great”. One pupil stated that “I now understand how processes work by using flowcharts”. I had a few suggestions and one pupil stated that “too much information in the first lesson - I couldn’t remember some of the points”. So I need to restructure the learning in this lesson to ensure that it isn’t overwhelming and presented appropriately.

Further research
It’s important to consider the ability of the learners in the control group and considering they are a high ability group the same strategies may not work with lower ability pupils. There are very few research articles around effective cognitive load strategies using technology so it’s always important to consider how technology is helping learning and avoid distraction from learning as much as possible.

The strategies used with this control group could be used as a wider study with other year groups assessing their understanding of algorithms and with older year groups checking understanding of that topic. How information is presented is essential and whilst textbooks are largely no longer used in education it’s important that pupils see the bigger picture of all concepts learnt in computer science for long-term memory retention.

  • Focus on key knowledge when introducing new learning, and don’t overcomplicate. The information shouldn’t be overwhelming and the use of images and diagrams will help to structure the information in a way that is accessible for all pupils to make strong progress.
  • Try to avoid distracting images on teacher presentations which will hinder learning for the pupil - and ensure that you assess understanding of new knowledge through effective assessment.
  • Allow enough lesson time for pupils to practically explore new knowledge and encourage effective discussions in the classroom around the new learning.
Further Reading